People who can use passive voice appropriately are considered to have a good level of English. Go through the article to learn about the correct usage of passive voice.
Difference in Active and Passive voice
A sentence starts with a subject
A sentence starts with an object.
Active And Passive Voice Rules With Examples In Hindi Pdf Download. Active: मैं यह खिड़की खोलूँगा – “I will open the window” Passive: खिड़की खोली जाएगी – “The window will be opened” Past. Active: मैंने यह खिड़की खोली – “I opened this window”. Active aur Passive voice meiN antar bahut saral hai. Abhee tak Hamane jo vaakya seekheN hai ve Active Voice ke hai jiname Kartaa (Subject) dwaaraa action kiyaa jaataa hai. In the Active Voice, there is a straight relationship between the Subject and Verb - the subject is a Do-er. Active and Passive Voice is an integral part of any of the exams, whether you are taking Board Exam, Non-Board Exam or any Competitive Exams held by Staff Selection Commission, IBPS, Railways, FCI and States' Recruitment Boards.
Rules for changing Active to Passive Voice
Subject is changed as per the following rule
General rule used to make passive voice
Object + To be + Past Participle of Verb + by Subject
‘To be’ varies according to the tense and rest of the rule remains the same.
The forms of ‘To be’ – is/am/are
Object + is/am/are + Past Participle of Verb + by Subject
Active – He plays football.
Passive– Football is passed by him.
Active– I teach English.
Passive – English is taught by me.
The forms of ‘To be’ – was/ were
So rule would be modified as
Object + was/were + Past Participle of Verb + by Subject
Active – Her Teacher punished her.
Passive– She was punished by her teacher.
Perfect Tenses (Present, Past & Future)
The form of ‘To be’ – been
Object + been + Past Participle of Verb + by Subject
Active – He has written a letter.
PASSIVE – A Letter has been written by him.
Active – They had already watched the movie.
Passive– The movie had already been watched by them.
Active – The children will have seen the show.
Passive– The show will have been seen by the children.
The form of ‘To be’ – being
Object + being + Past Participle of Verb + by Subject
Active – He is eating ice cream.
Passive– Ice cream is being eaten by him.
Active – They were watching the movie.
Passive– The movie was being watched by them.
NOTE: Passive voice of Future Continuous and Perfect Continuous Tenses is not possible.
MODALS (can, should etc.) and Future Indefinite
The form of ‘To be’ – be
Object + be + Past Participle of Verb + by Subject
Active – Government should ban smoking
Passive– Smoking should be banned by the government.
Active –I will finish the job tomorrow.
Passive– The job will be finished by me tomorrow.
So, changing Active Voice into Passive requires two steps:
Identify type of tense used in Active Voice
Apply the corresponding rule.
FORMS OF ‘ TO BE’
Perfect (Present, Perfect, Future)
Modals and Future Indefinite
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
Change the following sentences into the passive voice.
He likes coffee.
I received a parcel.
You will never forget this lesson.
They have brought a gift for you.
They had prepared the dinner before we arrived.
She will have taken the test.
She is doing the cooking.
They were giving a performance.
They should hire professionals.
Coffee is liked by him. (Present Indefinite)
A parcel was received by me. (Past Indefinite)
This lesson will never be forgotten by you. (Future Indefinite)
A gift has been brought to you by them. (Present Perfect)
The dinner had been prepared before we arrived. (Past Perfect)
The test will have been taken by her. (Future Perfect)
The cooking is being done by her. (Present continuous)
A performance was being
Professionals should be hired by them. (Modals)
Active And Passive Voice – Basic Rules With Examples
Some sentences can be written in two forms- Active Voice and Passive Voice. In Active Voice Sentence We have focus on subject towards a action, While In Passive Voice Sentence , We have to make some alteration and we give importance to the object. These sentence can be converted from active voice to Passive Voice and from Passive Voice to Active Voice. For Example
Active: I read a book.
Passive: A book is read by me.
There are definite rules for converting from active Voice to Passive Voice. But before these rules, It is necessary to know some basic concepts.
(A) The sentence in which the main verb is Intransitive can not be converted into Passive voice. For Example
(i) I read.
(ii). We go.
(iii). They laugh.
(B) The sentences of Future Continuous Tense can not be converted into Passive Voice. For Example
(C) No Perfect Continuous Tense of any Tense can not be converted into Passive Voice. For Example
While changing from the Active Voice to Passive Voice, the Subject is made the Object, and the Object becomes the Subject in the Passive Voice. Also, ‘By’ is used before the subject when it is made the object in the Passive Form. Sometimes ‘By’ is kept understood or implied also. For Example.
Active: Ram loves Shyam.
Passive: Shyam is loved by Ram.
While Interchanging the Subject and Object in the Passive Voice, the Articles, Adjectives and Adjectives Phrases connected with each other are also carried over with them. They are not separated from the Subject or the Object. For Example
Active: All the children heard an interesting story.
Passive: An interesting story was heard by all the children.
When the pronouns are transferred from the place of Object in the Active Voice to the place of Subject of Passive Voice, their forms are changed. For Example
(i). I in place of me.
(ii). We in place of Us.
(iii). He in place of him.
(iv). She in place of her.
(v). They in place of them
Note: No change is made in the change of You or It or any Noun. For Example
Active: Mohan hates them.
Passive: They are hated by Mohan.
When the pronouns are transferred from the place of subject in the Active Voice to the place of Object in the Passive Voice, Their forms are changed. For Example
(i). By me in place of I
(ii). By us in place of We.
(iii). By him in place of He.
(iv). By her in place of She.
(v). By them in place of They.
Note: There is no change in You, It or any Noun, but by is added before them. For Example
Active: We love the Child.
Passive: The child is loved by us.
Active: You wrote a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by you.
The following changes are made in the verb –
(i). The main Verb are used in the third Form.
(ii). An Appropriate verb to be ( is, am , are, was, were, be, been, being ) is used before the Third Form of the main verb According to the Number and Person of the Subject and Tense of the Verb.
(i). Indefinite Tense
In this Tense, Is, am or Are is used before the third form of the Main Verb according to the number and person of the Object. Structure of the Verb
Is / am / are + V3 (Third form of Verb) For Example
Active: Ram follows me.
Passive: I am followed by Ram.
(ii) Present Continuous Tense
The Structure of the Verb in this tense. Is / Am / Are + being + V3. For Example.
Active: He is writing a letter.
Passive: A letter is written by him.
Active: Ram is helping me.
Passive: I am being helped by Ram.
(iii) Present Perfect Tense
The Structure of the Verb in this Tense is. Has / have + been + V3 For Example.
Active: Mohan has read many books.
Passive: Many books have been read by Mohan.
(i) Simple Past Tense
The structure of the verb in this Tense is. Was / Were + V3 For Example.
Active: He helped me.
Passive: I was helped by him.
Active: Ram wrote a letter.
Passive: A latter is written by Ram.
(ii) Past Continuous Tense
The structure of the verb in this tense is. Was / Were + being + V3 For Example.
Active: Ram was writing a letter.
Passive: A letter was being written by Ram.
Active:P3d torrent. Harry was reading a book.
Passive: A book was being reading by harry.
(iii) Past Perfect Tense
The Structure of the verbs in this Tense is Had + Been + For Example.
Active: Ram had read many books.
Passive: Many books had been read by Ram.
Active: Ram had helped me.
Passive: I had been helped by Ram.
(i) Future Indefinite
The structure of the verbs in this tense is. Will / shall + Be + V3 For Example.
Active: Shyam will help me.
Passive: I will be helped by Ram.
(ii) Future Perfect Tense
The Structure of verbs in this tense is. Will / Shall + Have Been + V3 For Example.
Active: Ram will have written a letter.
Passive: a letter will have been written by Ram.
In a sentence in which an Auxiliary Verbs can / could / may / might / should / Would are used with Finite Verbs, they are retain as they are given in the Active Voice, they are followed by Be + V3 Structure of the verbs in this tense is. Auxiliary Verbs + V3 For Example.
Active: She should help Sita.
Passive: Sita should be helped by her.
Active: They can help you.
Passive: You can be helped by them.
In some sentence, verbs ‘ to be ‘ ( Is , am , Are, was , were ) is followed by Has / Have / Had, Which are followed by an Infinite ( To + verb ), While converting these sentence into Passive Voice, Verb ‘ to be’ and ‘ Has / Have / Had’ are retained in the form appropriate to the subject, after which are used to be +V3 For Example.
Active: She has to help me.
Passive: I have to be helped by her.
Sometimes an intransitive Verbs joined with a Preposition does the work of transitive verb. Sentences using this type of verb are converted into Passive Voice According to the normal rules, keeping in mind that the preposition must be retained with the verb. For Example
Active: She looks after him.
Passive: He is looked after by her.
Active: They laughed at him.
Passive: He was laughed at by them.
Some sentences have two objects.
Direct Object Or Indirect Object. For Example
She teaches me grammer.
Here “grammer’ is Direct Object and me is Indirect Object.
While converting such sentences into Passive Voice, The Indirect Object should be used as Subject. For Example
Active: I shall give you necessary help.
Passive: You will be given necessary help.
Note Sometimes, Direct Object can also be used as a Subject in the Passive Voice. For Example
Active: He teaches me Hindi.
Passive: I am taught Hindi by him.
Some sentences containing Double Object begin with Let in the Active Voice. In Passive Voice also these sentences begin with Let , and the Direct Object is used as the Subject. Also, Be should be used before the third form of the verb. For Example.
Active: Let him bring a glass of water.
Passive: Let a glass of water be brought by him.
If the Imperative sentence carries the sense of Order or Command, Its Passive Voice should begin with Let, and be should be used before the third form of the verb. For Example
Active: Shut the door.
Passive: Let the door be shut.
Active: Bring the pen.
Passive: Let the pen be brought.
If the Imperative sentence carries the request of advice, should be used before the third form of the Verb. These sentences do not begin with Let. For Example
Active: Love Your country.
Passive: Your country should be loved by you.
If the Imperative sentence is negative, the Passive voice should have Let not in place of Do not. Also, after the subject be + Third form of the verb should be used.
Active: Do not beat the Child.
Passive: Let not the child be beaten.
Nagative sentences are converted into Passive Voice just like the Affirmative Sentences. Not is retain at its normal position. For Example
Active: The baby was not hitting a toy.
Passive: A toy was not being hit by the baby.
Active: This boy cannot lift the box.
Passive: The box cannot be lift by this boy.
If the Interrogative sentences begin with the helping verb ( do, does, did, is, was, were, are, am, has, have, had ), The passive voice also begin with the Helping Verb, but the form of the Helping Verb changes according to the new subject in the Passive Voice. For Example
(i). Has, Have, had take been before the third form of the verb.
(ii) Interrogative sentences beginning with an Interrogative pronoun / Adverb ( Who, What , Whom etc…) begin in the Passive Voice with By whom or By With What. For Example
Active: Has he killed the dog. ?
Passive: Has the dog been killed by him ?
Usually By is used before the Object in the Passive Voice. But there are some verbs on account of which some other Preposition are used befor e the Object in place of By.
(i). ‘at’ is used after- Shocked, Surprised, astonished, alarmed, disappointed, displeased, distress.
(ii). ‘To’ is used after – Obliged, Known
(iii). ‘With’ is used after – Pleased, disgusted, impressed, Satisfied.
(iv). ‘In’ is used after – Consisted, contained, interested.
Active: Her behaviour disappointed me.
Passive: I was disappointed at her behaviour.
Active: This Job interests me.
Passive: I was interested in this job.
Some sentence begin with ‘ There’ followed by Verb + Subject + Infinitive. No change is made in such sentence in the Passive Voice that the Simple Present Infinitive is changed into the Past Infinitive ( To be + Past Participle). The rest of the sentence remains unchanged. For Example
Active: There is no milk to waste.
Passive: There is no milk to be wasted.
In some sentences Infinitive without ‘ to ‘ is used. For Example.
Active: I made him run away.
Passive: he was made to run away.
In sentences of this pattern normal Rules are applied for conversion into Passive Voice. with one more provision. that Infinitive without ‘to’ is used in place of Infinitive without ‘ to’. The structure of the main verb would be – to be + Past Participle.
Active: We saw him jump the ditch.
Passive: He was seen to jump the ditch.
Note: It may be noted here that ‘ to’ is not used after ‘ let’ even in the Passive Voice.
In some sentences that + a noun clause is used after the principle clause, and this Noun Clause is the Object of the Transitive Verb in the Principle Clause. Some Special care has to be taken in converting such sentences into the Passive Voice. In such sentences no Passive Voice is made of the Principle Clause, only its sentence is expressed in some way. Then the noun clause is changed into the Passive Voice according to the normal rules. In such sentences, we don’t usually use By + Object. For Example
Active: We know that he is a great scholar.
Passive: He is known to be a great scholar.
Note The verb after which a Noun Clause can be used as the object are these.Think, Consider, Believe, say, Know, Find, Claim, find, report, hold, etc…
Sometimes in the sentences of the above pattern, the noun clause is already in the Passive Voice. For Example
Active: He wants that he should be recognized as a great scholar.
In converting such sentences into passive voice, the principle clause is retained unchanged. That + Subject + Verb of the noun clause are removed. After the verb of the Principle Clause we should use to be + third form of the verb of the noun clause.
Passive: He wants to be recognized as a great scholar.
Active: He desires that he should be respected by all.
Passive: He desires to be respected by all.
Candidates can download rules for converting Active voice into Passive Voice In English grammar with examples pdf file by clicking on below link.
All the best for your upcoming exam!
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